The History of Brazil begins with the arrival of the first humans in the American continent for at least 12 thousand years. By the end of the fifteenth century, at the time of the Treaty of Tordesillas, the entire area now known as Brazil was inhabited by semi-nomadic tribes subsisting from hunting, fishing, gathering, and agriculture.
The territory was visited by several people: Phoenicians who founded trading posts, later replaced by Carthaginians. Celtic peoples settled and mingled with the natives. In the third century BC was inhabited by several peoples, when the Roman invasion of the Iberian Peninsula occurred. Romanization has left lasting marks on language, law and religion. With the decline of the Roman Empire, it was occupied by Germanic peoples and later by Muslims (Moors and some Arabs), while the Christians gathered to the north, in Asturias.
At the end of the Paleolithic period, the arid climate of North Africa became increasingly hot and dry, forcing the area’s populations to concentrate along the Nile Valley. From the nomadic hunters and gatherers to modern men began to live in the region, until the end of the Middle Pleistocene, about 120 thousand years ago, the Nile has been the salvation of Egypt. The fertile plain of the Nile gave men the opportunity to develop a sedentary agricultural economy and a more sophisticated and centralized society that has become a landmark in the history of human civilization.
During the Acheulian (Lower Paleolithic), indices dating back at least 700,000 years ago show a first human activity. These men lived mainly from collecting and hunting. The tool of this time consists of cut pebbles, bifaces, and craters, found particularly in the areas of Casablanca and Salé. The Musteriense (Middle Paleolithic) between 120,000 and 40,000 BC is characterized by the development of tools. This period has yielded sieves and scrapers, particularly in the stone industry of Jbel Irhoud. The Aterian period is known only in North Africa. This period is characterized by control of the production of tool with stalks to facilitate assembly. This period also experienced a climatic change, since the fauna and the flora became scarce, leaving the Sahara desert.