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Osteoporosis is defined as the accelerated loss of bone mass, which occurs during aging. This disease causes decreased absorption of minerals and calcium.

Three out of four patients are female. It primarily affects women who are in the postmenopausal stage.

The fragility of bones in women is caused by the absence of the female hormone, estrogen, which makes them porous like a sponge. It is the major cause of fractures and falls in the elderly.

We have cells in the body responsible for bone formation and others for bone resorption. Bone tissue is aging over time, just like all other cells in our body. The old bone tissue is destroyed by the cells called osteoclasts and created by the reconstructing cells, the osteoblasts. This process of destruction of cells is called bone resorption, which is compromised in osteoporosis, because the body starts to absorb more bone than to produce or not produce enough. Some problems can interfere with bone formation.

Fatores de risco
Eastern men and women are at greater risk of fractures due to osteoporosis, an anatomical problem in the femur
Family history of osteoporosis
Previous history of minimal trauma fracture
Low physical activity
Low calcium intake
Low sun exposure
Absence of menstrual periods (amenorrhea) for a long period
Low body weight.

Current treatments for osteoporosis do not reverse bone loss completely. Because osteoporosis is often diagnosed only after the onset of the disease, one of the best strategies is considered to be preventive measures that delay or prevent the development of the disease.

For this, during the youth one must improve the peak of bone mass, reduce the losses throughout the life and to avoid the falls. The main indications are:

Balanced nutrition, with attention to dietary calcium (milk and milk products);
Use of medicines with calcium and vitamin D;
Moderate exposure to sunlight for vitamin D synthesis;
Regular practice of physical exercises, such as walking – which stimulates bone formation and prevents reabsorption;
Hormone therapy (for women).

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